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LA-8C-RS


 LA-8C-RS - version
  designed and manufactured
  especially for oceanic flights

 
 

Amphibian aircraft  LA-8C-RS is designed and made from modern high-strength material in accordance with the FAR-23/21 (AP-23/21). The avionics and equipment, parts and components available in any country of the world are used in airframe and in aircraft systems. The hoses, fittings, pipeline accessories and flexible hoses manufactured in accordance with AN and MS international standards are used in fuel, oil, hydraulic and brake systems.
The aircraft can be delivered to Customer either with single or with dual control. Total number of seats – 8 with two pilots included.
Basic model of the aircraft is designed for VFR operations day/night. Empty weight for basic model of the aircraft LA-8C-RS (with oil, technical fluid, and  with a set of equipment for oceanic flight) is 1 685 kg, maximum take-off weight is 2 720 kg и допускается перегрузка при взлете с суши до 5 % .
The aircraft is designed to operate in all latitude and climatic zones, in fresh and salt water. The aircraft’s landing gear allows operating from paved and unpaved runways, including ground, asphalt, and snow-covered runways. Seagoing ability allows operating with wave height up to 0,6 m. Minimum length of runway is 400 m. Runway absolute altitude up to 2 000 m.  
The aircraft  equipped with avionics and other system for instrument flight rules (IFR) operations. The 3-axis autopilot system with auto-trim and yaw dumper function is available too.
The aircraft has improved heating system by the hot air from heaters of exhaust system, and ventilation of flight deck and passenger cabin.
Maximum range of the aircraft is 4 000 km. Estimated Time of flight without landing on the route up to 15 hours.

Maximum cruise speed is 270 km/h (145 knots) on altitude of 2 000 m (TAS). The cruise speed with full payload and full fuelling is 220 km/h (120 knots) on the altitude of 2 000 m (TAS) with engine at 65 %. The maximum duration of flight providing speed 180 km/h (100 knots) is up to 20 hours.
The service ceiling of 4,500 m.

Power plant is two piston engines LOM PRAHA M337C-AV-003 with take off power 250 HP. The engines are equipped with supercharge and timing fuel injection system. Time between scheduled maintenance of engines is 100 hours, motor oil replacing time is 200 hours.

AIRFRAME

The design of the aircraft
Two-engine composite high wing, with T-shaped stabilizer.
The airframe is painted by high-quality American paints in white color with ability to make additional tints. Such paint provides practically unlimited life time of composite construction, protecting it from harmful solar radiation. Almost anywhere it is possible to apply decorative stripes and emblems, logos and labels in the fuselage. The layer of transparent polyurethane varnish is applied over paint and provides additional protection for the paint.
The main fuel tanks with a capacity of – 1 450 liters.
There are special units for aircraft mooring on land and in water..
There are four knots on the top of the aircraft, for which the aircraft can be lifted by crane onto the deck of the ship and the dock with using a standard four-point brace.
Ground power unit (GPU) is plugged to the standard onboard socket and allows starting the engines and charging on-board batteries.

The landing/taxi lights cluster  is installed in the left wing. The quad xenon land light is installed in the right wing. The navigation lights (left and right) are located in the winglets, in the tail part of the fuselage the tail light and anti-collision light are installed, on the fin tip is located the parking light switched on in the water.

Landing gear is tricycle type, with the nose strut.  Wheel suspension is wishbone, with gas-fluid absorbers. For manufacture of landing gear it is used special high-quality stainless steel and special coverings with high resistance to seawater. The specially designed landing gear allows to land on unpaved ground. The landing gear retraction/extension is performed by hydraulic drive; The emergency extension of all struts is performed under their own weight.
Indication of the landing gear position is designed specifically for amphibian aircraft, when landing on the water surface is performed with retracted landing gear. So the position of retracted landing gear is displayed as bright-blue color (the color of the sea and sky), extended – as yellow color (the color of the earth). The additional visual control of position of the landing gear can be made by using panoramic mirrors located on the floats.

For controlling the aircraft when moving on water the different engine thrust or reverse thrust is used, for controlling the aircraft movement on land – separate braking wheels. The brakes are hydraulic, on control pedals. Both main wheels can be stopped by parking brake.

Control of the aircraft is possible from the right or left pilot’s seats which are equipped with control columns and pedals.

Engine control levers allow operate as straight thrust as reverse thrust. In order to prevent the propellers transition to reverse mode during flight engine, control console is equipped with computer controlled reverse lever lock disabling reverse activation at speed over 100 km/h and more than 1 400 RPM.

Flaps are controlled by electric drive. The flaps position is controlled by indicator and visually.
Pilot’s seats have a system of longitudinal movement which provides comfortable seating and adjustment for pilots which are from 160 to 200 cm in height. For convenient seat adjustment the handrail is mounted in the cabin. The design of the seat pan allows using individual anatomic cushion.

The main access door is located in the top tail part of fuselage and designed to provide boarding the aircraft as well on land as in water. The hatch opens up. The dimensions of hatch allow to load long-measuring freight and as well a patient on special stretcher.  Gas jacks provide easy hatch opening and closing and locking device – fixing the hatch opened. Hatch lock mechanism provides a two-level protection against accidental opening, allowing, at the same time, almost instantaneous opening hatch, both inside and outside. To access to the cabin is used embedded folding ladder, the design of which allows, if necessary, to climb back on board diver or swimmer.

In the cabin there is  set of equipment needed to aircraft operation on land and in water; at the time of oceanic flight, it includes:
- anchor
- towing & anchor ropes
- moorage ropes
- tie down ropes
- boat-hook

There are two emergency exits on left and right sides. The design of hatches allows pilot to abandon the aircraft with parachute during the flight (including emergency situation). Sliding transparent vents are embedded in windshield of hatches. At the top of the cabin there is the access hatch which allows go up to the top of fuselage.
The windshield is an athermal.
The left windscreen of pilot equipped with electrical defrost heating for deicing.

The cabin has 4 seats including the pilot's seat.  Installed a dry closet. Equipped with a single bed.
Under each seat is placed individual life vest approved type.

For baggage there are two storage compartments - in the nose of the aircraft and in the rear part of the cabin. For small items there are special pockets and niches, equipped with lockable luggage racks.

In each part of the cabin LED lamps are installed. The entrance hatch and front luggage compartment are lighted also. For connecting external electrical devices (portable lamps, GPS-receivers, etc.) the standard cigarette lighter sockets are used.

The aircraft is equipped with two bilge pumps for pumping water before taking off from the water area.

 

 

C  O  C  K  P  I  T

 
 
In the design of the aircraft, the main task performed by designers is its safety for passengers and pilots. LA-8C-RS aircraft is designed so that all the systems surpass the mandatory requirements of fail-safe, under the standards of airworthiness for the aircraft of this type.
The power plants is designed so that if one of the engines gets failure it is not required from pilot to put exceeding force and travel of control wheel and pedals to prevent turning the aircraft and maintain straight flight. Feathering of the propellers of failed engine may be performed automatically or manually.

As it is known one of the most frequent causes of flight accidents is CFIT (controlled flight into terrain). For minimization probability of such accidents LA-8C-RS aircraft is equipped with flight navigation system which allows operating in intricate meteorological conditions. For controlling the altitude the aircraft is equipped with two pilot-static sources with heated pitot displayed on three independent indicators; reserve static source from the cabin. Radio technical devices for preventing CFIT the aircraft is equipped with altimeter with two indicators, glideslope information is displayed on three independent indicators from two independent receivers. For providing rear visibility during the flight and while taxiing the camera is used. For determination the relative altitude is used GPS (altitude MSL  and GND) these are two on-board systems (GTN-650) and removable GPS 400 series and (or) 600, as well as a removable iPad with a program chosen by the customer. Approach procedures at airports using two independent systems (G-500 and IPad).  Also the aircraft  equipped with highly sensitive optical-infrared camera for better forward visibility in poor visibility conditions while landing with information displayed on G500. Also on the left screen of flight display  inferred: a synthetic view of the 3-D terrain generated by the database navigation system, which also makes easier the detection of spatial position in bad conditions and Terrain Awareness and Warning System TAWS, with the information put on the right display G500.

For preventing collision with other aircrafts in the air the Traffic Advisory System TAS is used in the aircraft, self-activating the transponders of other aircraft and displaying information on the background of the map on the right display G500. The aircraft is equipped with a transponder mode “S”.

Basic instruments have emergency power through the independent bus from the reserve battery counted on 30 minutes of flight.
The heated stall warning indicator located on the left wing warns about approaching of the aircraft to stall. Dangerous warning is displayed by a bright red flash light with a warning signal of  speaker at the same time.

For minimizing probability to operate in intricate weather conditions the aircraft  equipped with   meteorological radar.

De-icing system includes electric system of heating the pitot tube, the stall warning indicator, the left pilot windshield.
Using the M337C-AV-003 engines with compressors and dispersed fuel injection allows eliminating such a dangerous effect as icing the intake system of the engine.
Failure situations of all systems displayed on a special annunciate light panel (red and yellow lights with brightness which allows determining failure in sunlight cabin).   Mounted on floats panoramic mirrors allow not only visually monitoring the position and condition of the landing gear, but also provide oversight for almost the entire glider. Also the mirror allowing to observe passengers, freight and the entrance hatch is installed inside the cabin.
For using the exterior mirrors in the darkness special lamps for lighting the landing gear and the entrance hatch are installed on the floats. Also these lamps are used to make easier boarding and takeoff at night.
Failure of control pitch, roll and direction is compensated by trimmers and changes of engines power.
The aircraft is equipped with a speed computer-analyzer which prevents the reverse activation at speed exceeding 100 km/h, as well as the landing gear retraction at speed below 100 km/h.
Each propeller is equipped with a centrifugal lock, making it impossible to shift the propeller blades to reverse at 1,400 RPM. Thus to prevent accidental reverse activation in flight there is backup locking system.
In addition to the described systems engine control levers are equipped with breaker preventing the deliberate reverse activation by pilot in flight, as well as preventing forward thrust activation on the run due to premature reverse activation by pilot.

Rescue equipment includes radio transmitter 406 MHz KOSPAS-SARSAT and emergency hand VHF radio. Onboard there is rescue equipment set including first-aid kit, emergency axe, fire extinguisher, life vests for every seat, rescue raft 4-6-8, waterproof floating battery lamp, oxygen apparatuses for the crew in case of cabin smoke.

The aircraft  equipped with emergency dictaphone recording crew talks, video recorders, flight data recording system.

             

POWER PLANT

Basic power plant is based on the two engines LOM PRAHA M337C-AV-003 with take-off power 250 HP and continuous power of 210 HP each. Each engine has six cylinders in line (capacity of 6 liters, 366 cubic inches). The engines are invert. Such design of the engine provides the minimum aerodynamic resistance of power plant. The engines are equipped with mechanical superchargers and keep power to altitude of 2000 m. Also the engines are equipped with timing fuel injection which provides record low fuel consumption up to 0,195 kg (kw/h) and have automatic altitude fuel-air mixture correction

On the aircraft are installed the propellers of German production. The propeller MTV-12-D-C-F-R(M)/CFR190-53 with constant speed, hydraulic control, revers, feathering and zero thrust.

Oil Cooling System includes a thermostat to maintain a constant oil temperature and masloregulyator.
Standard noise level in the cabin as on the ground is provided by special propeller blade profile and specially designed exhaust system.

Except for the engine LOM PRAHA M-337C-AV the aircraft can be equipped with engines LYCOMING 540 of 235HP to 300HP, as well as turboprop TP-100 or AI-450 with propellers "AVIA" or MT.

In case of using LYCOMING engines it is possible to install HOFFMAN V-123 propellers with increased starting thrust.

All the proposed engines can be equipped with additional generators which provide additional electric power in case of using de-icing devices.

The aircraft can be equipped with auxiliary power unit with generator of 1 500W to increase the independency of the aircraft.

The engine operating is controlled by combined electronic indicating system EDM 960 produced by JPI Instruments which displays operating parameters. The engine monitoring system is specially updated and certified for installation on LA-8 aircraft. The instrument displays the following engine performance and has the following features:
- revolution per minute sensor
- manifold pressure sensor
- oil pressure sensor
- fuel pressure sensor
- oil temperature sensor
- cylinder head temperature sensor
- main bus voltmeter
- main bus ammeter
- fuel flow indication
- fuel level measure
- remain fuel counter
- estimated flight duration
- engine log recorder
- operating time register
- outside air temperature sensor
- engine power indicator
- indicator of asynchrony of propeller turns

In addition to main display the computer controlling the engine has two independent monitors with alarm abnormal parameters and black box to record the engine parameters and flight.

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

The main electrical network of the aircraft is DC 27V. Energy supply is DC generators. Battery of 24V/16 A*h. The aircraft is equipped with ground power unit of 24V – 250A which allows charging the batteries and starting the engines from an external supply.

For the aircrafts equipped with flight control equipment which provide IFR operation is used the additional independent power bus from back-up power supply which has sufficient capacity for providing the main radio-navigation equipment operation during 30 minutes of flight in case of failure of all other generators.

 

AVIONICS SET

The main flight instrument is GARMIN G500. The display consists of two monitors. The left one shows:
- attitude indication, synthetic vision is available
- indicator airspeed
- true airspeed
- altitude
- vertical speed
- turn coordinator
- slip indicatior
- magnetic heading
- true heading
- glideslope indication
- outside air temperature
- radio altimeter readings
- weather map of Meteorology radar

The right display shows navigation information: maps with flight track, approach charts according to Jeppesen database, taxiing and stopping charts, actual ground speed, track angle, wind, etc., and as well displaying terrain database TAS, radar screen and video screening from front and back view cameras.

The aircraft  equipped with one or two flight displays G-500.
The aircraft  equipped with Weather radar
GPS/NAV/COMM system is GARMIN GTN-650 that combines the following functions:
- GPS receiver
- touchscreen graphical flight planning
- VHF with transmitter of 10 or 16 W (optional)
- VOR/ILS receiver
- remote transponder interface
- router for avionics network
- navigation information source for autopilot
- moving map.

The aircraft  equipped with  two GTN-650.

Aircraft equipped with radio compass ADF, distance-measuring equipment DME, short-wave and satellite communication with Internet access.
Equipment switching is performed through the audio panel with built-in intercom.

To reduce crew workload and increase safety of the aircraft 3-axis autopilot with autotrim on three channels and yaw damper is installed. The autopilot allows operation in automatic mode according to flight plan information, using previously generated data from the navigation system.

Backup instruments: airspeed indicator, altimeter, gyro horizon, clock, magnetic compass. On the left instrument panel  installed the additional backup devices:  vertical speed indicator, CDI indicator, ADF indicator or G-meter
The aircraft equipped with removable iPad with air navigation data and navigation programs, for standard version – AirNavPro with Jeppesen Navigation Database.

 

CABIN ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT

 (For improving the crew efficiency and convenience of passengers)

The pilots’ seats are equipped with glass-holders, pockets for charts. On the dashboard mounted locks for portable navigation devices, and for the power supply installed additional electrical connectors.

    

FUEL. OILS AND FLUIDS

Fuel:
(a) unleaded gasoline, (MOGAS) octane number not less than 95, alcohol content not more than 5%

 (b) aviation gasoline AVGAS 100LL

Oil: in accordance with specification MIL-L-6082E - without additives or
in accordance with specification MIL-L-22851D  - with additives

Hydraulic fluid/brake fluid
(a) AMG-10
(b) MIL-5606H hydraulic fluid


 

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